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 首頁 > C語言

C語言的特點

51自學網 2015-09-08 http://www.0532cf.com

C語言是中級語言
C語言通常稱為中級計算機語言。中級語言并沒有貶義,不意味著它功能差、難以使用、或者比B A S I C、P a s c a l那樣的高級語言原始,也不意味著它與匯編語言相似,會給使用者帶來類似的麻煩。C語言之所以被稱為中級語言,是因為它把高級語言的成分同匯編語言的功能結合起來了。表1 - 1表明了C語言在計算機語言中所處的地位。

作為中級語言,C允許對位、字節和地址這些計算機功能中的基本成分進行操作。C語言程序非常容易移植。可移植性表示為某種計算機寫的軟件可以用到另一種機器上去。舉例來說,如果為蘋果機寫的一個程序能夠方便地改為可以在IBM PC 上運行的程序,則稱為是可移植的。
所有的高級語言都支持數據類型的概念。一個數據類型定義了一個變量的取值范圍和可在其上操作的一組運算。常見的數據類型是整型、字符型和實數型。雖然C語言有五種基本數據類型,但與P a s c a l或A d a相比,它卻不是強類型語言。C程序允許幾乎所有的類型轉換。例如,字符型和整型數據能夠自由地混合在大多數表達式中進行運算。這在強類型高級語言中是不允許的。
C語言的另一個重要特點是它僅有3 2個關鍵字,這些關鍵字就是構成C語言的命令。和IBM PC的B A S I C相比,后者包含的關鍵字達1 5 9個之多。
C語言是結構化語言

雖然從嚴格的學術觀點上看,C語言是塊結構(b l o c k - s t r u c t u r e d)語言,但是它還是常被稱為結構化語言。這是因為它在結構上類似于A L G O L、P a s c a l和M o d u l a - 2(從技術上講,塊結構語言允許在過程和函數中定義過程或函數。用這種方法,全局和局部的概念可以通過“作用域”規則加以擴展,“作用域”管理變量和過程的“可見性”。因為C語言不允許在函數中定義函數,所以不能稱之為通常意義上的塊結構語言)。

結構化語言的顯著特征是代碼和數據的分離。這種語言能夠把執行某個特殊任務的指令和數據從程序的其余部分分離出去、隱藏起來。獲得隔離的一個方法是調用使用局部(臨時)變量的子程序。通過使用局部變量,我們能夠寫出對程序其它部分沒有副作用的子程序。這使得編寫共享代碼段的程序變得十分簡單。如果開發了一些分離很好的函數,在引用時我們僅需要知道函數做什么,不必知道它如何做。切記:過度使用全局變量(可以被全部程序訪問的變量)會由于意外的副作用而在程序中引入錯誤。

結構化語言比非結構化語言更易于程序設計,用結構化語言編寫的程序的清晰性使得它們更易于維護。這已是人們普遍接受的觀點了。C語言的主要結構成分是函數C的獨立子程序。

在C語言中,函數是一種構件(程序塊),是完成程序功能的基本構件。函數允許一個程序的諸任務被分別定義和編碼,使程序模塊化。可以確信,一個好的函數不僅能正確工作且不會對程序的其它部分產生副作用。

1.2.3 C語言是程序員的語言

也許你會問“所有的計算機語言不都是程序員使用的嗎?”,回答是斷然的“否”。我們考慮典型的非程序員的語言C O B O L和B A S I C。C O B O L的設計使程序員難以改變所編寫代碼的可靠性,甚至不能提高代碼的編寫速度。

然而C O B O L設計者的本意卻是打算使非程序員能讀程序(這是不大可能的事)。注意,這并不是攻擊C O B O L的優點,而是想指出,它沒有被設計成為程序員的理想語言。BASIC 的主要目的是允許非專業程序員在計算機上編程解決比較簡單的問題。與其形成鮮明對照的是C 語言,由于程序生成、修改和現場測試自始至終均由真正的程序員進行,因而它實現了程序員的期望:很少限制、很少強求、塊結構、獨立的函數以及緊湊的關鍵字集合。用C語言編程,程序員可以獲得高效機器代碼,其效率幾乎接近匯編語言代碼。

C語言被程序員廣泛使用的另一個原因是可以用它代替匯編語言。匯編語言使用的匯編指令,是能夠在計算機上直接執行的二進制機器碼的符號表示。匯編語言的每個操作都對應為計算機執行的單一指令。雖然匯編語言給予程序員達到最大靈活性和最高效率的潛力,但開發和調試匯編語言程序的困難是難以忍受的。非結構性使得匯編語言程序難于閱讀、改進和維護。也許更重要的是,匯編語言程序不能在使用不同C P U的機器間移植。

最初,C語言被用于系統程序設計。一個“系統程序”是一大類程序的一部分,這一大類構成了計算機操作系統及實用程序。通常被稱為系統程序的有:

• 操作系統。
• 翻譯程序。
• 編輯程序。
• 匯編程序。
• 編譯程序。
• 數據庫管理程序。
隨著C語言的普及,加之其可移植性和高效率,許多程序員用它設計各類程序。幾乎所有的計算機上都有C語言編譯程序,這使我們可以很少改動甚至不加改動地將為一種機器寫的C 語言源程序在另一種機器上編譯執行。可移植性節省了時間和財力。

C語言不僅在速度和結構上有它的優勢,而且每個C語言系統都提供了專門的函數庫,程序員可以根據不同需要對其進行剪裁,以適應各種程序的設計。由于它允許(更準確地說是鼓勵)分別編譯,所以C語言可使程序員方便地管理大型項目,最大限度地減少重復勞動。

 

 

 
說明
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上一篇:C語言的程序結構  下一篇:程序設計語言的發展
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