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Linux 指令篇:文件管理--diff

51自學網 http://www.0532cf.com

功能說明:比較文件的差異。

語  法:diff [-abBcdefHilnNpPqrstTuvwy][-<行數>][-C <行數>][-D <巨集名稱>][-I <字符或字符串>][-S <文件>][-W <寬度>][-x <文件或目錄>][-X <文件>][--help][--left-column][--suppress-common-line][文件或目錄1][文件或目錄2]

補充說明:diff以逐行的方式,比較文本文件的異同處。所是指定要比較目錄,則diff會比較目錄中相同文件名的文件,但不會比較其中子目錄。

參  數:
 -<行數>  指定要顯示多少行的文本。此參數必須與-c或-u參數一并使用。
 -a或--text  diff預設只會逐行比較文本文件。
 -b或--ignore-space-change  不檢查空格字符的不同。
 -B或--ignore-blank-lines  不檢查空白行。
 -c  顯示全部內文,并標出不同之處。
 -C<行數>或--context<行數>  與執行"-c-<行數>"指令相同。
 -d或--minimal  使用不同的演算法,以較小的單位來做比較。
 -D<巨集名稱>或ifdef<巨集名稱>  此參數的輸出格式可用于前置處理器巨集。
 -e或--ed  此參數的輸出格式可用于ed的script文件。
 -f或-forward-ed  輸出的格式類似ed的script文件,但按照原來文件的順序來顯示不同處。
 -H或--speed-large-files  比較大文件時,可加快速度。
 -l<字符或字符串>或--ignore-matching-lines<字符或字符串>  若兩個文件在某幾行有所不同,而這幾行同時都包含了選項中指定的字符或字符串,則不顯示這兩個文件的差異。
 -i或--ignore-case  不檢查大小寫的不同。
 -l或--paginate  將結果交由pr程序來分頁。
 -n或--rcs  將比較結果以RCS的格式來顯示。
 -N或--new-file  在比較目錄時,若文件A僅出現在某個目錄中,預設會顯示:
Only in目錄:文件A若使用-N參數,則diff會將文件A與一個空白的文件比較。 
 -p  若比較的文件為C語言的程序碼文件時,顯示差異所在的函數名稱。
 -P或--unidirectional-new-file  與-N類似,但只有當第二個目錄包含了一個第一個目錄所沒有的文件時,才會將這個文件與空白的文件做比較。
 -q或--brief  僅顯示有無差異,不顯示詳細的信息。
 -r或--recursive  比較子目錄中的文件。
 -s或--report-identical-files  若沒有發現任何差異,仍然顯示信息。
 -S<文件>或--starting-file<文件>  在比較目錄時,從指定的文件開始比較。
 -t或--expand-tabs  在輸出時,將tab字符展開。
 -T或--initial-tab  在每行前面加上tab字符以便對齊。
 -u,-U<列數>或--unified=<列數>  以合并的方式來顯示文件內容的不同。
 -v或--version  顯示版本信息。
 -w或--ignore-all-space  忽略全部的空格字符。
 -W<寬度>或--width<寬度>  在使用-y參數時,指定欄寬。
 -x<文件名或目錄>或--exclude<文件名或目錄>  不比較選項中所指定的文件或目錄。
 -X<文件>或--exclude-from<文件>  您可以將文件或目錄類型存成文本文件,然后在=<文件>中指定此文本文件。
 -y或--side-by-side  以并列的方式顯示文件的異同之處。
 --help  顯示幫助。
 --left-column  在使用-y參數時,若兩個文件某一行內容相同,則僅在左側的欄位顯示該行內容。
 --suppress-common-lines  在使用-y參數時,僅顯示不同之處。


 
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